Swans in the Blackfoot: Trumpeters or Tundras?

Tundra Swans flying over Wigeon Marsh near Ovando on April 1.

This time of year, as well as in the fall, I have to take a close look at–or listen to–any swans I see, to know which species I’m observing. While we are now fortunate enough to have a fairly robust summer population of Trumpeter Swans in the middle and upper Blackfoot, we also have migrating Tundra Swans that pass through on their way to nesting grounds in the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic.  These “cousins” to our Trumpeter Swans can be difficult to tell from trumpeters, even by expert observers!

The Sibley Guide website has a lot of good information on distinguishing the two, as does the Trumpeter Swan Society . Trumpeters are larger than Tundra Swans, although it’s difficult to see that unless they are side by side.  Trumpeters have long, straight bills, usually with a strip of orange on the lower part.  Tundra Swans have rounder heads with shorter, more concave bills.  Tundras typically have yellow spots on the black “lores” near their eyes, but they can also have orange strips!  As you can see from the photo below, they can be difficult to identify unless you can clearly see them side by side.

Adult Trumpeter Swan (left) and adult Tundra Swan (right) showing larger size difference of Trumpeter and different bill shape. Toronto on 17 December 2017. Photo by Jean Iron, used with permission.

The sounds the two species make are very distinct, however, and this is the easiest way to tell them apart if you are lucky enough to hear them. Tundra Swans were formerly called Whistling Swans, and they definitely have a different call than the low tone of the trumpeters.  You can hear the sounds of Trumpeter Swans here and compare them to the higher pitched “whistle” of the Tundra Swans here.

Mute Swans, an exotic species from Europe, have become established in some parts of the eastern U.S. and Midwest, but fortunately have not made it to Montana, as they are aggressive competitors with our native swan species and can damage ecosystem functions.  I had a scare last week as we were driving home from Oregon and saw a golf course near Spokane with Mute Swans in several of the ponds!  On closer inspection they turned out to be decoys, probably placed there to scare off geese and ducks, but they also gave a fright to this swan observer.

With many bodies of water still frozen in western Montana, people are seeing lots of swans and Snow Geese filling up the few open ponds and fields.  It’s a wonderful time to be out and about, hearing the cries of the wild flocks as they wing their way north or settle down for some important rest and refueling on their long journeys.  The wetlands of our watershed provide vital habitat for so many species throughout the year.  And it’s just as exciting to know that some of the swans will stay right here in the Blackfoot to raise their young this coming summer!

This entry was posted in Swan Project by elaine. Bookmark the permalink.

About elaine

Elaine monitors the local Trumpeter Swan population for the Blackfoot Challenge and US Fish and Wildlife Service. She also participates in science education programs in the Blackfoot Watershed.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *